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Day by day almost three million folks in the US are getting the Covid-19 vaccine. And each new jab prompts new questions on what to anticipate after vaccination.
Final week I requested readers to ship me their questions on vaccinations. Listed below are some solutions.
Q: I’ve heard the Covid vaccine uncomfortable side effects, particularly after the second dose, may be actually unhealthy. Ought to I be nervous?
Quick-lived uncomfortable side effects like fatigue, headache, muscle aches and fever are extra frequent after the second dose of each the Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna vaccines, which every require two photographs. (The Johnson & Johnson vaccine requires solely a single shot.) Sufferers who expertise disagreeable uncomfortable side effects after the second dose typically describe feeling as if they’ve a foul flu and use phrases like “it flattened me” or “I used to be ineffective for 2 days.” Throughout vaccine research, sufferers have been suggested to schedule just a few days off work after the second dose simply in case they wanted to spend a day or two in mattress.
Data collected from v-safe, the app everybody is inspired to make use of to trace uncomfortable side effects after vaccination, additionally present a rise in reported uncomfortable side effects after the second dose. As an illustration, about 29 % of individuals reported fatigue after the primary Pfizer-BioNTech shot, however that jumped to 50 % after the second dose. Muscle ache rose from 17 % after the primary shot to 42 % after the second. Whereas solely about 7 % of individuals bought chills and fever after the primary dose, that elevated to about 26 % after the second dose.
The New York Instances interviewed several dozen of the newly vaccinated within the days afterward. They recounted a large spectrum of responses, from no response in any respect to signs like uncontrolled shivering and “mind fog.” Whereas these experiences aren’t nice, they’re an indication that your individual immune system is mounting a potent response to the vaccine.
Q: Is it true that ladies usually tend to worsen uncomfortable side effects from the vaccine than males?
An analysis from the primary 13.7 million Covid-19 vaccine doses given to Individuals discovered that uncomfortable side effects have been extra frequent in ladies. And whereas extreme reactions to the Covid vaccine are uncommon, almost all of the instances of anaphylaxis, or life-threatening allergic reactions, occurred in women.
The discovering that ladies usually tend to report and expertise disagreeable uncomfortable side effects to the Covid vaccine is in step with different vaccines as nicely. Ladies and ladies can produce as much as twice as many antibodies after receiving flu photographs and vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella (M.M.R.) and hepatitis A and B. One study discovered that over almost three a long time, ladies accounted for 80 % of all grownup anaphylactic reactions to vaccines.
Whereas it’s true that ladies could also be extra prone to report uncomfortable side effects than males, the upper fee of uncomfortable side effects in ladies additionally has a organic clarification. Estrogen can stimulate an immune response, whereas testosterone can blunt it. As well as, many immune-related genes are on the X chromosome, of which ladies have two copies and males have just one. These variations might assist clarify why far more women than men are bothered with autoimmune illness, which happens when a strong immune response assaults the physique’s wholesome tissue. You possibly can learn extra about ladies and vaccine uncomfortable side effects right here.
Q: I didn’t have any uncomfortable side effects. Does that imply my immune system didn’t reply and the vaccine isn’t working?
Uncomfortable side effects get all the eye, however in the event you take a look at the information from vaccine scientific trials and the actual world, you’ll see that many individuals don’t expertise any uncomfortable side effects past a sore arm. Within the Pfizer vaccine trials, about one out of 4 sufferers reported no uncomfortable side effects. Within the Moderna trials, 57 % of sufferers (64 or youthful) reported uncomfortable side effects after the primary dose — that jumped to 82 % after the second dose, which implies nearly one in 5 sufferers reported no response after the second shot.
An absence of uncomfortable side effects doesn’t imply the vaccine isn’t working, stated Dr. Paul Offit, a professor on the College of Pennsylvania and a member of the Meals and Drug Administration’s vaccine advisory panel. Dr. Offit famous that in the course of the vaccine trials, a major variety of folks didn’t report uncomfortable side effects, and but the trials confirmed that about 95 % of individuals have been protected. “That proves you don’t must have uncomfortable side effects with a purpose to be protected,” he stated.
No one actually is aware of why some folks have lots of uncomfortable side effects and others have none. We do know that youthful folks mount stronger immune responses to vaccines than older folks, whose immune techniques get weaker with age. Ladies sometimes have stronger immune responses than males. However once more, these variations don’t imply that you simply aren’t protected in the event you don’t really feel a lot after getting the shot.
Scientists nonetheless aren’t certain how efficient the vaccines are in folks whose immune techniques could also be weakened from sure medical circumstances, equivalent to most cancers therapies or H.I.V. an infection or as a result of they’re taking immune suppressing medication. However most specialists consider the vaccines nonetheless provide these sufferers some safety towards Covid-19.
The underside line is that though particular person immune responses can fluctuate, the information collected up to now present that each one three vaccines permitted in the US — Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson — are efficient towards extreme sickness and demise from Covid-19.
Q: I took Tylenol earlier than I had my Covid vaccine photographs and had little or no response to the photographs. Did I make a giant mistake?
You shouldn’t attempt to stave off discomfort by taking a ache reliever earlier than getting the shot. The priority is that premedicating with a ache reliever like acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), which might forestall uncomfortable side effects like arm soreness in addition to fever or headache, may additionally blunt your physique’s immune response.
Whereas it’s doable that taking a ache reliever earlier than your photographs may need dampened your physique’s immune response, vaccine specialists say you shouldn’t fear, and also you shouldn’t attempt to get a brand new spherical of substitute photographs. Research of different vaccines recommend that whereas premedicating can uninteresting the physique’s immune response to a vaccine, your immune system can nonetheless mount a powerful sufficient protection to struggle an infection. A assessment of studies of more than 5,000 children in contrast antibody ranges in youngsters who took ache relievers earlier than and after vaccinations and people who didn’t. They discovered that ache relievers didn’t have a significant impression on immune response, and that youngsters in each teams generated sufficient ranges of antibodies after their photographs.
The excessive efficacy of all of the Covid vaccines means that even when taking Tylenol earlier than the shot did blunt your physique’s immune response, there’s some wiggle room, and you’re possible nonetheless nicely protected towards Covid-19. “It is best to really feel reassured that you simply’ll have sufficient of an immune response that you simply’ll will likely be protected, particularly for vaccines which might be this good,” stated Dr. Offit.
Q: What about taking a ache reliever after the shot?
“It’s OK to deal with” uncomfortable side effects with a ache reliever, stated Dr. Offit, however in the event you don’t really want one, “don’t take it.”
Whereas most specialists agree it’s protected to take a ache reliever to alleviate discomfort after you get vaccinated, they advise towards taking it after the shot as a preventive or in case your signs are manageable with out it. The priority with taking an pointless ache reliever is that it may blunt a number of the results of the vaccine. (When it comes to the vaccine, there’s no significant distinction in the event you select acetaminophen or ibuprofen.)
Through the Moderna trial, about 26 % of individuals took acetaminophen to alleviate uncomfortable side effects, and the general efficacy of the vaccine nonetheless was 94 %.
Q: Are the uncomfortable side effects worse in the event you’ve already had Covid-19?
Research and anecdotal studies recommend that folks with a beforehand identified Covid-19 an infection might have a stronger response and extra uncomfortable side effects after their first dose of vaccine in comparison with those that have been by no means contaminated with the virus. A powerful response to your first dose of vaccine additionally is likely to be an indication that you simply have been beforehand contaminated, even in the event you weren’t conscious of it.
If you happen to beforehand examined optimistic for Covid-19 or had a optimistic antibody blood take a look at, be ready for a stronger response to your first dose, and contemplate scheduling just a few days off work simply in case. Not solely will it’s extra comfy to remain residence and get better in mattress, the vaccine uncomfortable side effects can resemble the signs of Covid-19, and your co-workers gained’t need to be close to you anyway.
Q: I had Covid-19 already. Does that imply I can simply get one dose?
Research recommend that one dose is likely to be sufficient for individuals who have a beforehand confirmed case of Covid-19, however up to now the medical tips haven’t modified. If you happen to’ve acquired the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines, it is best to plan to get your second dose even in the event you’ve had Covid-19. Skipping your second dose may create issues in case your employer or an airline ask to see proof of vaccination sooner or later. If you happen to stay in an space the place the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine is accessible, you then may be absolutely vaccinated after only one dose. You possibly can learn extra right here in regards to the vaccine response in individuals who’ve had Covid-19.
Q: Will the vaccines work towards the brand new variants which have emerged world wide?
The vaccines look like efficient towards a brand new variant that originated in Britain and is rapidly changing into dominant in the US. However some variants of the coronavirus, notably one first recognized in South Africa and one in Brazil, look like more proficient at dodging antibodies in vaccinated folks.
Whereas that sounds worrisome, there’s cause to be hopeful. Vaccinated folks uncovered to a extra resistant variant nonetheless look like protected towards severe sickness. And scientists have a transparent sufficient understanding of the variants that they already are engaged on creating booster photographs that can goal the variants. The variants recognized in South Africa and Brazil should not but widespread in the US.
People who find themselves vaccinated ought to nonetheless put on masks in public and adjust to public well being tips, however you shouldn’t stay in concern of variants, stated Dr. Peter J. Hotez, dean of the Nationwide Faculty of Tropical Drugs at Baylor School of Drugs in Houston. “If you happen to’re vaccinated, it is best to really feel fairly assured about how protected you’re,” stated Dr. Hotez. “It’s unlikely you’ll ever go to a hospital or an I.C.U. with Covid-19. In time you’re going to see a advice for a booster.”
I hope these solutions will reassure you about your individual vaccine expertise. You’ll find a extra full listing of questions and solutions in our particular vaccine instrument “Solutions to All Your Questions About Getting Vaccinated In opposition to Covid-19.”